Super-Villains of the “Real World”: The Political Use of the Characterization of Villains in Christopher Nolan’s “Dark Knight Trilogy”

It is almost a tradition for Hollywood villains to have some characteristics that remind us the real political enemies of the United States. From beards, goatees, Russian-style hats, Slavic accents and Kalinka dancers, to peace symbols, punks looks, sun-toasted skins and Arabic moons, we can find a lot of examples of these related-to-reality characteristics throughout […]

Ideology, Propaganda and Covert Propaganda in Audiovisual Narrative: Some Definitions

Ideology and propaganda are concepts which share semantic field. We can use a visual metaphor and say that ideology is the substratum and propaganda the stratum. Another visual metaphor, borrowed from set theory, the set propaganda is included in the set ideology and its main feature is the conscious dissemination. While transmission of ideology can […]